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M.L. 1991 Projects

M.L. 1991 Projects

MN Laws 1991, Chapter 254, Article 1, Section 14 (beginning July 1, 1991)

NOTE: For all projects, contact us to obtain the most up-to-date work programs for current projects (project updates are required twice each year) or the final reports of completed projects.

The following documents are short abstracts for projects funded during the 1991-1993 biennium. The final date of completion for these projects is listed at the end of the abstract. When available, we have provided links to a project's web site. The sites linked to this page are not created, maintained, or endorsed by the LCCMR office or the Minnesota Legislature.

Subd. 03   Recreation
Subd. 04   Water
Subd. 05   Education
Subd. 06   Agriculture
Subd. 07   Forestry
Subd. 08   Fisheries
Subd. 09   Wildlife
Subd. 10   Land
Subd. 11   Minerals
Subd. 12   Waste
Subd. 13   Oil Overcharge

Subd. 03   Recreation
03aOff-Highway Vehicle Recreation Areas
03bSuperior Hiking Trail
03cLocal River Planning
03dAccess to Lakes and Rivers
03eLand and Water Resource Management for the Lower St. Croix National Scenic Riverway
03fMississippi River Valley Blufflands Initiative
03gReclamation of Recreational Systems and Environmental Resources from Existing Urban/Suburban Neighborhoods
03hPreservation of Historic Shipwrecks in Lake Superior
03iLand and Water Conservation Fund Administration
03jHistoric Records Database
03kFur Trade Research and Planning
03lMystery Cave Resource Evaluation
03mRails-to-Trails Acquisition and Development
Subd. 04   Water
04aStream and Watershed Information System
04bSouth Central MN Surface Water Resources Atlases and Data Base
04cMN River Basin Water Quality Monitoring
04dWaterwatch - Citizen Monitoring and Protection Program
04eDemonstration of Biotechnology for Removing Organic Chemicals from Aquifers and Groundwater
04fCounty Geologic Atlas (MGS) / Groundwater Sensitivity Mapping (DNR)
04gAquifer Analysis in Southeastern Minnesota
04hClean Water Partnership Grants to Local Units of Government
04iCannon River Watershed Grants
04jMitigating Mercury in Minnesota Lakes and Streams
04kDevelopment and Application of Aeration Technologies
04lLake Superior Initiative/Institute for Research
04mLake Mille Lacs Public Land Use - CANCELED
04nEcological Evaluation of Year-Round Aeration
04oErosion Control Cost-Share Grants
04pWell-Sealing Cost-Share Grants
Subd. 05   Education
05aState Environmental Education Program
05bTeacher Training for Environmental Education
05cVideo Education Research and Demonstration Project
05dIntegrated Resource Management Education and Training Program
05eContinuing Education in Outdoor Recreation Management for Natural Resource Managers
05fEnvironmental Exhibits Collaborative
05gUpper Mississippi River Environmental Education Center - CANCELED
05hUrban Rangers Program
05iCrosby Farm Park Nature Program
05jYouth in Natural Resources
05kEnvironmental Education for the Handicapped
Subd. 06   Agriculture
06aBiological Control of Pests
06bReview and Evaluation of Degradation and Bioremediation of Elevated Levels of Pesticides at Spill Sites
06cEffective Nitrogen and Water Management for Water Quality Sensitive Regions of Minnesota
06dConservation Reserve Easements
06eNative Grass and Wildflower Seed
06fCommunity Gardening Program
Subd. 07   Forestry
07aMN Old-Growth Forests: Characterization & Identification
07bImpacts of Intensified Forest Management and Atmospheric Change on Nutrient Cycling and Tree Species Suitability
07cState Forest Land Acquisition
07dRegeneration and Management of Minnesota's Oak Forests
07ePrivate Forest Management for Oak Regeneration
07fAspen Hybrids and New Tissue Culture Techniques
07gAspen Decay Models for Mature Aspen Stands
07hGeneric Environmental Impact Statement on Timber Harvesting
Subd. 08   Fisheries
08aPilot Fish Pond Complex for Fisheries development and Education
08bAquaculture Facility Purchase and Development and Transgenic Gamefish Growth Studies
08cUrban Aquatic Education Program
08dCatch & Release Program
08eMetropolitan Lakes Fishing Opportunities Study
08fLake Minnetonka Bass Tracking
08gStocking Survey
Subd. 09   Wildlife
09aInsecticide Impact on Wetland and Upland Wildlife
09bBiological Control of Ecologically Harmful Exotic Species: Eurasian Watermilfoil
09cMicrobial/Genetic Strategies for Mosquito Control
09dMN County Biological Survey
09eData Base for Plants of Minnesota
09fAquatic Invertebrate Assessment Archive
09gWetlands Forum - CANCELED
09hEasement Acquisition on Restored Wetlands
09iSwan and Heron Lake Area Projects
09jWildlife Oriented Recreation Facilities - Sandstone Unit
09kScientific and Natural Areas Acquisition and Betterment
09lBlack Bear Research in East Central MN
09mPartnership for Accelerated Wild Turkey Management
09nRestore Thomas Sadler Bird Sanctuary
09oEffects of Change in the Forest Ecosystem on the Biodiversity of Minnesota's Northern Forest Birds
09pEstablish Northern Raptor Rehabilitation and Education Facility
09qEffect of Avian Flu Virus on Growth and Production Parameters in Mallard Ducks
Subd. 10   Land
10aBase Maps for the 1990's
10bAccelerated Soil Survey
10cStatewide National Wetlands Inventory, Protected Water Inventory, and Watershed Map Digitization
10dStatewide Land Use Update of MN
10eLocal Geographic Information System Project
10fGIS Control Point Inventory
10gLand Use and Design Strategies to Enhance Environmental Quality
10hModel Residential Land Use Guidelines
Subd. 11   Minerals
11aSubsurface Greenstone Belts in Southwestern MN
Subd. 12   Waste
12aRemediation of Soils Contaminated with Semi-Volatiles by Composting with Leaves
12bLand Spreading of Yard Waste
Subd. 13   Oil Overcharge
13aTraffic Signal Timing and Optimization Program
13bWaste Crumb Rubber in Roadways
13cSynthesis of Biodegradable Plastics in Microbial and Crop Plant Systems
13dAgricultural Energy Savings Information
13eResidential Urban Environmental Resource Audit
13fMeans for Producing Lignin-Based Plastic
13gCellulose Rayons for Packaging
13hTree and Shrub Planting for Energy
13iOil Overcharge Program Administration
13jEvaluating Performance-Based Standards for Energy-Efficient New Homes

Funding Sources: (**note: all projects are TF, unless otherwise noted)
Environment and Natural Resources Trust Fund (TF)
Future Resources Fund (FRF)
Oil Over Charge(OOC)

Subd. 03  Recreation

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Subd. 03a    $


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Superior Hiking Trail
Subd. 03b    $400,000 MFRF

Thomas L. Peterson
1300 Highway 61 E.
Two Harbors, MN 55616

Phone:  (218) 834-4556

This appropriation was used to plan and build 65 miles of hiking and backpacking trail, 15 bridges, three parking areas, and ten separate campsites between Knife River and the Canadian border. This biennium's construction brings the total length of the Superior Trail to 200 miles. Corresponding to this growth in trail length, membership in the Superior Hiking Trail Association has also grown from 700 to 1400 and has been featured in newspaper, magazine, radio, and TV stories. Through volunteer labor and various funding sources, the Association is committed to completing the remaining segments of the Superior Hiking Trail.

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Local River Planning
Subd. 03c    $400,000 MFRF

Daniel G. Retka
DNR Division of Waters
1201 E. Highway 2
Grand Rapids, MN 55744

Phone:  (218) 327-4416

This project assisted local units of government in the wise management of rivers within their jurisdiction. Collaborative teams created river plans -- consisting of land use zoning criteria, recreational objectives, water quality considerations, and historic/cultural recommendations -- for the St. Louis, Cloquet, Whiteface, Rainy, and Rapid rivers. These locally designed plans all contain more restrictive zoning provisions than the statewide standards and are tailored to specific local needs and concerns.

The plans for the St. Louis, Cloquet, and Whiteface rivers have resulted in a program to purchase large blocks of land for protection, and it is intended that all the plans will be distributed widely as examples of river management. This project is continuing into the 1993-95 biennium (M.L. 1993, Ch. 172, Sec. 14, Subd. 11(b).

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Access to Lakes and Rivers
Subd. 03d    $1,000,000 MFRF

Michael T. Markell
Trails and Waterways
500 Lafayette Road
St. Paul, MN 55155-4052

Phone:  (612) 296-6413

This program provided new or improved public access to lakes and rivers statewide in order to increase the opportunities for enjoying MN's water resources. During this biennium, two access sites were purchased (Lake Minnetonka and Green Lake), one boat access site is being developed (Mississippi), 22 fishing piers were purchased, and the Metro Shore Fishing Map was published -- showing over 180 public fishing sites. Five of these sites are being improved to meet the needs of children, elderly, and people with disabilities. This project is continuing into the 1993-1995 biennium through additional LCMR funding (M.L. 1993 Chapter 172, Sect. 14, Subd. 10(l)).

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Land and Water Resource Management for the Lower St. Croix National Scenic Riverway
Subd. 03e    $360,000 TF

Dan McGuiness
The MN-Wisconsin Boundary Area Commission
619 Second Street
Hudson, WI 54016

Phone:  (612) 436-7131

This appropriation was used to develop better management and increased local stewardship of the land and water resources in the Lower St. Croix National Scenic Riverway. The resulting outcomes were threefold.

First, a Geographical Information System(GIS) for the Lower St. Croix Watershed was created in order to assess the ecological and visual impacts of growing use. The GIS includes geo-referenced data about water quality, aquatic habitat, cultural settlement patterns, and topographic conditions for the waterway.

Second, an assessment of current management strategies and needed changes was completed. And lastly, the project expanded communication and coordination efforts among stakeholders and designed a program that will provide ongoing assistance, information, and education.

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Mississippi River Valley Blufflands Initiative
Subd. 03f    $150,000 TF

Steven P. Johnson
DNR/ Rt. 2, Box 230
Lake City, MN 55041

Phone:  (612) 345-3331

This project provided technical assistance to local governments for developing land-use planning tools that protect the scenic and biological resources of the blufflands region. To this end, blufflands zoning plans were developed in Goodhue and Houston counties, and information on land-use policy was disseminated to Wabasha and Winona counties and other interested communities.

The Blufflands initiative heightened awareness of the significance and the sensitivity of bluffland resources and generated enthusiasm among citizen groups for long-term blufflands stewardship, as well as enhancing the cooperative working relationships among concerned individuals and organizations. The project also published a booklet entitled "Visions and Vistas -- Blufflands Forever" that will be widely distributed in visitor centers, state parks, chambers of commerce and other public places.

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Reclamation of Recreational Systems and Environmental Resources from Existing Urban/Suburban Neighborhoods
Subd. 3(g)    $200,000 MFRF

William R. Morrish
Design Center for American Urban Landscape, U of MN
320 Wulling Hall
Minneapolis, MN 55455

Phone:  (612) 626-0333

This project investigated the potential for enhancing and enriching the open space, recreational amenities, and overall physical quality of existing urban/suburban neighborhoods as part of future capital improvement programs. To this end, the project group completed case studies of Chanhassen, Maple Grove, Farmington, and Saint Paul's Phalen Neighborhood which examined the inter-relationship of urban design, capital infrastructure, and ecology.

The case study process included the following components: an urban design education/workshop format was developed for city administrative staff and elected officials; urban design principles were studied which link civic design, recreation, site ecology, and community capital improvements; and the results of the case studies were synthesized for application to other communities in the metropolitan area. The case studies were disseminated in newsletter format to participating communities and are available with the summary report at the U of MN Architecture library and the Metropolitan Council library in St. Paul.

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Preservation of Historic Shipwrecks in Lake Superior
Subd. 03h    $100,000 MFRF

Donn Coddington
MN Historical Society
345 Kellogg Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55111

Phone:  (612) 297-7451

This appropriation was used to survey shipwrecks that were not surveyed during the first phase (1989-1991) of the LCMR-funded Lake Superior shipwreck project (M.L. 89, Ch. 335, Sec. 29, Subd. 9(f)). The Minnesota Historical Society spearheaded this project in conjunction with the State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) and private contractors with expertise in maritime history and archaeology.

The surveys from this biennium resulted in the nomination of five shipwrecks to the National Register of Historic Places and the creation of three survey reports, research files, wreck drawings, video tapes, color slides, and black and white photographs. A draft management plan and educational materials were also produced. The SPHO plans to work with the MN Historical Society Press to publish the results of the Lake Superior Shipwrecks Study.

An additional component of this project consisted of planning and constructing diver access facilities along the north shore of Lake Superior. DNR has entered into a contract with the city of Silver Bay to construct the diver access.

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Land and Water Conservation Fund Administration
Subd. 03i    $84,000 MFRF

William H. Becker
500 Lafayette Road
St. Paul, MN 55155-4010

Phone:  (612) 296-3093

This appropriation was designated for the administration of the federal Land and Water Conservation Fund grant program to maximize federal receipts and ensure Minnesota's continuing eligibility to participate. This appropriation was also used for the administration of other grant activities assigned to the DNR commissioner through contracts with outside organizations for conducting LCMR projects assigned to the DNR in Chapter 254.

Under this administration, federal reimbursements totaling $287,000 were captured, and the remaining $378,000 due from L&WCF grant funds will be reimbursed to the state as the designated projects are completed. Of the 27 "pass-through" LCMR appropriations made to the commissioner, 24 contracts were executed and three were canceled.

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Historic Records Database
Subd. 03j    $180,000 MFRF

Michael Fox
MN Historical Society
345 Kellogg Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55101

Phone:  (612) 296-1014

This project increased the accessibility of the Minnesota Historical Society's resources by converting older card files and published lists into electronic form and entering them into the PALS computer network. During this biennium, catalog records for 169,272 items in the Historical Society's collections were completed and are now available for searching at 15 terminals in the History Center, at over 500 other terminals connected to PALS, and by dial access from any home in the state with a computer and modem.

There is strong evidence of increased use of the collections because the number of database searches by History Center patrons has grown from 16,000 to more than 103,000 per month, and the demand for loans of books, articles, and microfilm is also growing.

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Fur Trade Research and Planning
Subd. 03k    $250,000 MFRF

Donn Coddington
MN Historical Society
345 Kellogg Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55111

Phone:  (612) 297-7451

This appropriation was used to expand research about the North West Fur Post on the Snake River near Pine City, MN and to improve educational programming and facilities planning at the fur post. In close cooperation with the citizens of Pine City, the master plan for the North West Fur Post was expanded and improved. Designs for an education building and an exhibit program were completed, and comprehensive education planning was conducted to provide for both coordinated and expanded programming between the fur post and the Ojibwe encampment's interpretation, exhibits, trail signage and on- and off-site education programs.

New research was also completed regarding the fur trade and Ojibwe life of the early 1800s in the Snake River area. The research document, "Angwammas (It's About Time) -- A Research Report on the Ojibwe/European Fur Trade Relations From an Ojibwe Perspective," provides a way to tell the stories of the North West Fur Post from multiple perspectives.

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Mystery Cave Resource Evaluation
Subd. 03l    $150,000 MFRF

Warren Netherton
Forestville State Park
Preston, MN 55965

Phone:  (507) 937-3251

This appropriation was used to carry out an in-depth resource inventory and study of Mystery Cave which included groundwater quality, cave meteorology, geology, and biology. One important outcome is a better understanding of the dynamic relationships between surface and cave meteorology and between surface precipitation and cave water quality.

Other results include the creation of a detailed geologic map including stratigraphic profiles and cross sections and the collection of various aquatic invertebrates, including two species not previously reported in Minnesota.

The researchers disseminated their findings at training sessions and through written narratives which the Forestville State Park staff will utilize during environmental education programs and public cave tours.

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Rails-to-Trails Acquisition and Development
Subd. 03m    $1,000,000 TF

Dennis W. Asmussen
Trails and Waterways
DNR 500 Lafayette Road
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 296-4822

This appropriation was used to acquire the abandoned Burlington Northern grade from Hawick to Richmond and the remaining abandoned Burlington Northern grade needed for the Paul Bunyan State Trail.

The acquisition of the Hawick to Richmond grade now provides contiguous ownership of the abandoned grade from Willmar to Richmond; trail development has been initiated on the Willmar to Hawick segment. The Paul Bunyan State Trail will span 95 miles from Baxter to Bemidji (excluding the towns of Pine River, Nisswa, and Pequot Lakes), and trail development will be initiated in the near future.

Subd. 04  Water

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Stream and Watershed Information System
Subd. 04a    $200,000 TF

Susanne Maeder
LMIC/ Department of Administration
330 Centennial Building
658 Cedar Street
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 297-4986

This appropriation was used to develop an integrated information system describing Minnesota's streams and associated watersheds. The system combines Geographic Information System (GIS) layers describing the river traces and land characteristics of the watershed with tabular information describing stream flow, water quality, water appropriation, and other features.

A menu interface was designed to allow both experienced and inexperienced users to define their search by geographic area (county or watershed), display map information on the screen, query the system about streams, lakes, monitoring activity, or appropriations, create reports from the data, and create hard-copy maps. This Stream and Watershed Information System is designed to be expanded as data layers become available, and users of the system will include state and local agencies and local water planning groups.

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South Central MN Surface Water Resources Atlases and Data Base
Subd. 04b    $300,000 TF

Henry W. Quade
Water Resources Center
MSU/ Box 34
Mankato State University
Mankato, MN 56002

Phone:  (507) 389-5492

This project produced thirteen county surface water resources atlases with the same mapping base as MN's geologic atlases. They have been recorded in both hard copy and electronic (GIS) format. These surface water references can be directly compared with subsurface geologic-hydrogeologic maps for interpretation, planning, and management.

The database provides broad-based water resource data in a coherent and accessible format. Training workshops on the database were conducted at Mankato State University's Information Sciences Institute. This project is continuing in the 1993-1995 biennium with additional LCMR funding (M.L. 93, Ch. 172, Sec. 14, Subd. 11(e)).

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MN River Basin Water Quality Monitoring
Subd. 04c    $700,000 TF

Wayne Anderson
Water Quality, Pollution Control Agency
520 Lafayette Rd.
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 296-7323

This appropriation was used to conduct a comprehensive nonpoint source pollution (NPS) evaluation of the entire Minnesota River system. The monitoring program was a collaboration between federal, state, and local operators and included physical/chemical assessment, biological/toxicological assessment, and land use assessment.

The study found that most of the NPS loading occurs during runoff events, when large amounts of fine-particle sediment and nutrients are washed into the system. The biological communities at many locations were less diverse and had fewer species than expected due to the effects of channelization, siltation, and organic enrichment.

To prevent the run-off and leaching of fine-particle sediment and nutrients, the study recommends several management practices including: conservation tillage, nutrient management, feedlot runoff controls, buffer strips along all open channels, strategic wetland restoration, clandestine dump site cleanups, more work to address open tile intakes, and the correction of faulty septic systems.

The results of this project are recorded in a four-volume report given to all SWCD offices and local river planners. The overall summary report will be available upon request from MPCA. The nonpoint source control strategies generated by this project will be documented in the Nonpoint Source Management Program prepared under Section 319 of the Federal Clean Water Act.

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Waterwatch - Citizen Monitoring and Protection Program
Subd. 04d    $272,000 MFRF

David Christopherson
Minnesota Pollution Control Agency
520 Lafayette Road
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 296-8856

This project encouraged and coordinated public involvement in water quality monitoring by building partnerships between local interests and state agencies. The main components consisted of developing and implementing monitoring programs for the Upper Mississippi River, Itasca County lakes, and the St. Louis River.

The Mississippi Headwaters Board (MHB) River Watch involved students from nine schools in monitoring the upper Mississippi and conducted an inventory of natural, cultural, scenic, scientific, and recreational values for the first 400 miles. This data was then entered into a GIS format. Itasca County undertook an extensive monitoring program of its lakes in order to start developing a lake management plan in collaboration with other stakeholders. Several lake and school groups assisted the Conservation District with water sampling.

The St. Louis River Watch involved 16 schools in water quality monitoring that included both chemical and biological parameters and the first comprehensive survey of benthic macro-invertebrates on the St. Louis.

Other project outcomes included a Frog Watch program, a radio show produced by students, a river congress attended by 200 students, and a program called Keepers of the Waters that brings scientists and artists together over water-quality concerns. Water quality data from these monitoring efforts was also entered into a database and is available through the national STORET database.

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Demonstration of Biotechnology for Removing Organic Chemicals from Aquifers and Groundwater
Subd. 04e    $96,000 MFRF

Walter Maier
Dept. of Civil and Mineral Engineering, U of MN
Minneapolis, MN 55455

Phone:  (612) 625-3016

This appropriation was used to develop and demonstrate in situ methods for bioremediation of organic pollutants in groundwater. Several compounds were shown to completely biodegrade through oxidation, and higher molecular weight polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were shown to degrade by resident soil organisms as long as sufficient oxygen was present. The compounds that are less soluble in water took longer to biodegrade.

A protocol for testing minimally disturbed soil cores was developed which utilizes columns to assess the spatial distribution of pollutants and oxygen. Column testing was carried out at the Reilly Superfund Site in St. Louis Park, where the results showed that rates of biodegradation were limited by oxygen availability. Oxygen enrichment resulted in the complete biodegradation of all polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) without the addition of either nutrients or specially adapted microorganisms. These studies are ongoing using funding from other agencies.

The column studies generated a large database of information, and mathematical models have been developed to analyze the data. One model helps interpret changes in soluble and absorbed PAH concentrations, and the other is most useful for simulating the dynamics of oxygen deficiencies. The latter model, however, was not adequate for fitting the column test results; this was resolved by working with the staff at the Army High Performance Computer Center to develop a model that is capable of finding best fit values of selected coefficients that cannot be measured directly. The results of this research have been presented at two conferences, and five papers have been submitted for publication.

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County Geologic Atlas (MGS)/Groundwater Sensitivity Mapping (DNR)
Subd. 04f    $1,400,000 TF

Priscilla Grew
MN Geological Survey
2642 University Ave.
St. Paul, MN 55114

Phone:  (612) 627-4780

Sarah Tufford
500 Lafayette Rd.
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 297-2431

This appropriation was used to accelerate the production of County Geologic Atlases (CGA) and Regional Hydrogeologic Assessments (RHA). During this biennium, the Ramsey County CGA was published, and the Anoka Sand Plain RHA was completed. Work is in progress on the Rice, Fillmore, and Stearns CGA's and on the Red River and Southwestern RHA's. Public presentations and workshops have been held in each project area.

These CGA's and RHA's will expedite the acquisition, verification, interpretation, and transfer of geologic and hydrogeologic information at an appropriate scale for planners, resource managers and educators to make well-informed decisions about local land use. Production of county geologic atlases and regional hydrogeologic assessments will be expanded during the 1993-1995 biennium through continued LCMR funding (M.L. 1993, Chp. 172, Sec.14, Subd. 11g).

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Aquifer Analysis in Southeast Minnesota
Subd. 04g    $73,000 MFRF

Nancy O. Jannik
Department of Geology
Winona State University
Winona, MN 55987

Phone:  (507) 457-5267

This appropriation was used to perform pumping tests of two widely used aquifers in Southeast Minnesota in order to analyze aquifer characteristics and interaction. Two key findings were that aquifer characteristics varied considerably over the study region, and that interaction between the two aquifers is not as clearly defined as was widely proposed.

This study found that the transmission and storage parameters for the two aquifers need to be determined based on local characteristics and stratigraphy. This research involved undergraduates and local citizens in the scientific process.

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Clean Water Partnership Grants to Local Units of Governments
Subd. 04h    $700,000 TF

Gayleen Reetz
MN Pollution Control Agency
520 Lafayette Road
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 296-7323

This project accelerated the Clean Water Partnership program by providing grants to local units of government to solve surface and groundwater quality problems resulting from nonpoint sources of pollution. Three projects were selected and received funding.

The Lambert Creek Improvement project focused on the domestic water supply for St. Paul and included the impoundment of three areas and, if necessary, the chemical treatment of sediments to enhance nutrient retention.

The Brown-Nicollett-Cottonwood Groundwater Implementation project goals include reduction of nitrate-nitrogen contamination in drinking water, prevention of drinking water contamination in the future, and increasing public awareness of the linkage between land use practices, water quality, and public health.

The Lake Shaokatan Restoration Implementation Project has defined specific watershed sources of excess nutrients which will be reduced by implementation of various management practices such as feedlot management, wetland restorations, and agricultural nutrient management. Results from these three projects will be shared with other local governments so they can learn from the experiences of these and the other 32 Clean Water Partnership projects.

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Cannon River Watershed Grants
Subd. 04i    $60,000 TF

David Peterson
Board of Water and Soil Resources
1200 S. Broadway, Rm. 135
Rochester, MN 55904

Phone:  (507) 285-7458

This appropriation was used to provide grants for research and demonstration projects in the Cannon River Watershed that promote proper resource management techniques or investigate unique watershed features. Grants were awarded to nine applicants. Three projects demonstrated management practices for minimizing agricultural non-point pollution from nutrients and soil erosion. Two projects demonstrated forestry practices to improve understandings and promote forest management in the watershed.

A grant to the Cannon Falls school district was used to establish an on-site school nature area in conjunction with St. Olaf College. The French Lake Association demonstrated planting of selected aquatic vegetation with a technique called aquascaping. A project by Carleton College dealt with management needs to maintain a threatened species of turtles. St. Olaf College conducted a survey to determine wetland biodiversity in the watershed.

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Mitigating Mercury in Minnesota Lakes and Streams
Subd. 04j    $300,000 TF

Dan Helwig
MN Pollution Control Agency
520 Lafayette Road
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 296-7215

Continuing from the 1989-1991 biennium (M.L. 1989, Ch. 335, Art. 1, Sec. 29, Subd. 4(c)), this project investigated the mechanism of mercury bioaccumulation in fish and began to develop and test methods for mitigating this accumulation. First, an in-water test chamber was modified to accommodate experiments, then an impact assessment protocol and sampling regime were developed and tested.

Various methods for mitigating mercury contamination in fish were then tested. The results were threefold:

  1. Addition of bioactive carbon (vegetation) significantly increased mercury contaminations in fish;
  2. Addition of a micronutrient significantly decreased the concentration of mercury in fish and,
  3. Addition of mercury absorbing polymer and chelator also decreased the concentration of mercury in fish but to a lesser extent than the micronutrient. Experimentation will continue during the next biennium (M.L. 93, Ch. 172, Sec. 14, Subd. 11(c)).

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Development and Application of Aeration Technologies
Subd. 04k    $148,000 MFRF

Heinz Stefan
St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Lab, U of MN
Minneapolis, MN 55414

Phone:  (612) 627-4010

This research project explored the relationship between sedimentary oxygen demand and water velocities above the sediment bed in order to optimize the placement of lake aerators, the selection of aerator capacity, and the design of membrane aerators.

The experiments and analysis showed that sedimentary oxygen demand (SOD) increases in proportion to the velocity of the water moving over the sediments. Aeration devices can also artificially create water velocities near the sediment water interface which are not usually factored into the estimation of aerator capacity but were recognized in this research. During this project, the laboratory measurements of sedimentary oxygen demand rates agreed with the range of values determined for natural lakes.

A design that employs hollow fiber modules was found to be applicable as an instream aerator and hypolimnetic aerator because no bubbles are produced and 100% transfer efficiency is approached. Using the results of laboratory experiments, researchers developed a parametric relationship that may be used to predict the performance of instream or hypolimnetic aerators in the field. The results of this research are available from the St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Laboratory and have also been disseminated through presentations at conferences and publication in professional journals.

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Lake Superior Initiative/ Institute for Research
Subd. 04l    $400,000 MFRF

Dr. Robert M. Carlson
U of MN-Duluth, Dept. of Chemistry
10 University Drive
Duluth, MN 55812

The purpose of this appropriation was to form and staff the Institute for Lake Superior Research and to develop a coordinated program of research on Lake Superior. A permanent director was not appointed during this biennium. The interim director and associate director initiated a symposium to ascertain the state of knowledge about Lake Superior. Science and policy groups from several American Universities and Canada attended and exchanged research priorities.

Research projects carried out this biennium under the auspices of the Institute for Lake Superior Research include:

  1. The cataloging and partial analysis of lake core samples,
  2. The development of a new method for analysis of reactive toxicants,
  3. A set of lake investigations using conceptual and mathematical models previously applied on a similar lake in Russia, and
  4. An investigation of the accumulation and sources of natural and anthropogenic organic chemicals in lake sediments.

Currently eight publications describing this work are in preparation or have been accepted.

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CANCELED (Personnel problems) - Lake Mille Lacs Public Land Use
Subd. 04m    $20,000 MFRF

Robert E. Hance, Jr.
1601 Minnesota Drive
Brainerd, MN 56401

Phone:  (218) 828-2613

The goal of this project was to survey public land adjacent to Lake Mille Lacs to determine which governmental unit has administrative control and assess current use by the public.

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Ecological Evaluation of Year-Round Aeration
Subd. 04n    $100,000 TF

David Wright
Box 25-500 Lafayette Rd.
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 297-4886

This program explored the ecological impacts of year-round aeration on MN lakes in order to evaluate the claim that aeration mitigates a variety of water quality problems. The key finding was that the impact of aeration on lake ecology varied as a function of lake type. Deep lakes were affected both physically and chemically by aeration, showing higher nutrient levels, more algae, poorer water clarity, but less blue-green algae. Shallow lakes, however, showed no such response.

Researchers will present project results at the 1993 meeting on the North American Lake Management Society and will disseminate information to interested groups through the Ecological Services section of the DNR.

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Erosion Control Cost-Share Grants
Subd. 04o    $250,000 TF

Eric Mohring
Board of Water and Soil Resources
155 South Wabasha St.
St. Paul, MN 55107

Phone:  (612) 297-7360

This project provided funding, as well as engineering and technical support, to seven soil and water conservation districts (SWCDs) in southeastern Minnesota to help them carry out conservation projects in the catchment areas of sinkholes. Funded projects included two large-scale diversion projects in Fillmore county and 25 smaller-scale projects in Fillmore, Mower, Olmsted, Houston, Dodge, Winona, and Goodhue counties. Activities included surface water diversions and controls, watershed conservation practices, and a variety of sinkhole treatments designed to reduce the contamination of ground water. The emphasis was on sites where innovative practices could be used with a high information and educational potential.

Several of the projects will be utilized as demonstration sites and a guidance document will be available for use by SWCDs, local government, and landowners.

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Well-Sealing Cost Share Grants
Subd. 04p    $750,000 TF

Eric Mohring
Board of Water and Soil Resources
155 South Wabasha St.
St. Paul, MN 55107

Phone:  (612) 297-7360

This project provided grants to counties for sharing the cost of sealing high-priority abandoned wells. A total of 39 counties received cost-share grants, ranging in size from $2,000 to $55,000. As of June 1993, 1270 abandoned wells have been sealed and approximately 2,000 more are projected to be sealed.

These local cost-share programs served to raise public awareness about the contamination threat of abandoned wells. Consequently, more wells have been slated to be sealed voluntarily and local education efforts have been initiated.

This program enabled the Board of Water and Soil Resources and other agencies to expand their training and technical support to local units of government, and local government staff members have learned and benefitted from each others' administrative and technical experience.

Subd. 05  Education

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State Environmental Education Program
Subd. 05a    $790,000 TF

Pam Landers
MN Dept. of Education
550 Cedar Street
St. Paul, MN 55101

Phone:  (612) 296-8132

This appropriation was used to fund several different initiatives aimed at strengthening environmental education across Minnesota. "A GreenPrint for Minnesota: The State Plan for Environmental Education" was created which outlines recommended actions, priority audiences, and longterm goals for environmental education in Minnesota.

Another project initiative resulted in the development of several model environmental education curriculums that utilize innovative approaches and also stress the dissemination of information across districts.

In addition to GreenPrint and model curriculum development, an assessment of Minnesota's environmental learning centers was completed which identifies strategies to help improve coordination and communication between learning centers and other institutions involved in environmental education.

A related initiative sought to incorporate environmental education into the state's system of Community Education by improving communication and offering several environmental training programs (workshops, inservice, and conferences) to community education personnel.

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Teacher Training for Environmental Education
Subd. 05b    $5,000 MFRF

Marion Brooks Wallace
St. Paul Chapter of National Audubon Society
2603 Cohansey St.
St, Paul, MN 55113

Phone:  (612) 484-7062

This program provided scholarships to 3rd-5th grade teachers for training workshops held at Audubon's Northwoods Center which taught teachers how to integrate environmentally sound concepts into their classes. Two 4-day workshops were conducted in the summers of 1992 and 1993, where a total of 27 teachers were trained and received 40 recertification credits. 19 teachers registered at Hamline University for three graduate credits.

The hands-on workshop included a variety of field instruction, simulation games, and curriculum planning. This program is potentially adaptable to other nature centers in the state which would make training accessible to more teachers on an in-service basis.

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Video Education Research and Demonstration Project
Subd. 05c    $100,000 TF

James E. Carufel
Twin Cities Public Television
172 E.4th St.
St. Paul, MN 55101

Phone:  (612) 229-1453

This project developed a video education demonstration project and created a model for statewide video environmental education and communication networks. Initial background research indicated that there are significant teacher needs that could be met through many avenues, including in-service video training programs, teacher-friendly video curriculums, teacher training via teleconferencing, and a video resource library of reliable videos. The results of this research were documented on two professionally-prepared videotapes.

A teacher training model was developed in collaboration with master teachers from North Dakota and Minnesota and was tested at a two-day workshop with 100 teachers. The training module was shown to be over 90% effective in improving teacher use of video and student learning. In addition, a demonstration project for public awareness was tested when six public TV stations broadcast specially produced "Enviro-Tips" with a 1-800 feedback line 800 times over a six-month period.

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Integrated Resource Management Education & Training Program
Subd. 05d    $300,000 TF

Ron Nargang
500 Lafayette Rd.
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 296-4810

This program provided 27 internships and 25 scholarships to attract individuals into natural resource and related careers. More than 25 percent of scholarship recipients were minorities and nearly half were female.

The program also sponsored a graduate level agronomy course for 30 staff members, paid for two state employees to attend a comprehensive emergency response training conference, and partially funded both a major environmental spill exercise and a statewide conference on environmental emergencies. The internship and scholarship program will continue for an additional two years under the Governor's Investment Initiatives.

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Continuing Education in Outdoor Recreation Management for Natural Resource Managers
Subd. 05e    $125,000 MFRF

David Lime
Forest Resources, U of M
1530 N. Cleveland
St. Paul, MN 55108

Phone:  (612) 624-2250

This project developed, implemented, and evaluated a training and education program for DNR employees and other natural resource professionals in order to expose them to new concepts and technologies that have direct application to outdoor recreation management.

Through a partnership between the University of Minnesota, DNR, and other agencies, an interdisciplinary short course was developed and conducted in four two-week training sessions. Over 140 professionals participated from various agencies including DNR, National Park Service, and U.S. Army Corp of Engineers.

Evaluation of the short course, compiled from participant questionnaires and a follow-up workshop, indicates that perceived knowledge increased for most participants and will potentially last for the long run. Some participants, however, had little chance to put their new knowledge to work on the job and cited organizational barriers, lack of clear divisional goals, instability of funding, and resistance to change as the reasons.

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Environmental Exhibits Collaborative
Subd. 05f    $400,000 TF

Louis Casagrande
Science Museum of Minnesota
30 E. 10th Street
St. Paul, MN 55101

Phone:  (612) 221-9432

This appropriation was used to create a statewide partnership of MN museums, environmental learning centers, governmental agencies, and private organizations for the purpose of sharing environmental exhibits and programs throughout the state. The Science Museum and the Bell Museum each produced an exhibit on a water-related topic, and these exhibits traveled free of charge to Environmental Exhibits Collaborative (EEC) members across Minnesota.

The MN DNR purchased copies of the exhibits for use in the state park system. The Science Museum shared its stormwater exhibit with several EEC members and is exploring ways it might construct additional copies. The Science Museum also gave each residential environmental learning center a Water Trunk for on-site water education.

The Bell and Science museums jointly organized and ran two exhibit-development workshops in order to provide EEC members with the knowledge and confidence to build their own small-scale exhibits through the use of inexpensive and readily available materials.

Both museums intend to continue working closely with EEC partners and the Science Museum is working with Twin Cities Public Television to develop "Science Minnesota," a proposal to the National Science Foundation for increasing public awareness about scientific topics important to this region.

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CANCELED - Upper Mississippi River Environmental Education Center
Subd. 05g    $600,000 MFRF (Required match not met)

Eric Sorenson
City of Winona
P.O. Box 378
Winona, MN 55987

Phone:  (507) 457-8233

The goal of this project was to develop detailed architectural designs necessary to obtain federal construction funding for an Upper Mississippi River Environmental Education Center.

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Urban Rangers Program
Subd. 05h    $100,000 MFRF

Larry Nelson
Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board
310 4th Ave. South
Minneapolis, MN 55415

Phone:  (612) 348-2226

This project developed an environmental education program for children in urban areas. After a review of existing urban environmental education programs in the United States and an inventory of Minneapolis resources, Urban P.L.A.C.E. (People Learning About Community and Environment) was chosen as an appropriate model, and pilot programs were conducted at ten recreation centers throughout Minneapolis in the summer of 1992.

Since each site presented significant differences in terms of resources available, demographics, and staff support, each of the ten programs was unique. 395 children participated in the pilot programs free of charge.

After follow-up evaluations and resulting refinements, 32 recreation centers chose Urban P.L.A.C.E as part of their offerings for summer 1993. As evidence of Urban P.L.A.C.E.'s dissemination in Minneapolis, some public schools are modelling programs after it, and non-profit organizations, schools, and recreation departments from other large cities have requested information about it.

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Crosby Farm Park Nature Program
Subd. 05i    $85,000 MFRF

Ed Olsen
Parks and Recreation, City of St. Paul
1224 N. Lexington Parkway
St. Paul, MN 55103

Phone:  (612) 488-7291

This project instituted a nature study program at Crosby Park and developed an environmental education curriculum for St. Paul elementary schools. A full time naturalist was hired and interpretive displays were developed, as well as weekend, after- school, and vacation programming. Over the two-year project, 742 adults and 2,518 children have participated in programs at the Nature Park.

An environmental education curriculum was also developed for St. Paul schools which utilizes classes both in school and at the Nature Park; over 6,722 school children and their teachers have participated.

To insure access for audiences with special needs, specific efforts are being made to mainstream these students into regular programming offered at the Nature Park.

To disseminate information about the Nature Park programs, brochures have been delivered to over 21,000 residents in St. Paul, and school brochures have been distributed to every elementary school. This project will be expanded during the 1993-1995 biennium through continued LCMR funding (M.L. 1993, Chp. 172, Sec. 14, Subd. 7m).

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Youth in Natural Resources
Subd. 05j    $250,000 MFRF

Larry Fonnest
Office of Youth Programs
500 Lafayette Road
St, Paul, MN 55155-4004

This project developed a career exploration program in the natural resources for minority youth and tested their vocational interests, skills, and aptitudes. Participants in this program spent up to 20 hours per week learning about their cultural ties to the natural world, about the issues and techniques involved in resource management, and about various career options. The balance of the week was devoted to field work experience. By June 1993, 175 young people, ages 15 to 18, and 39 adult staff of color participated in the program. Due to this success, Youth in Natural Resources has been honored by several public service organizations and has received considerable media attention.

The development of strong working partnerships with six minority community agencies, four Job Training Partnership Act Service Delivery Areas, and four natural resource agencies will serve as the foundation for the program's future.

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Environmental Education for the Handicapped
Subd. 05k    $130,000 MFRF

Marty Cushing
Vinland National Center
Lake Independence, Box 308
Loretto, MN 55357

Phone:  (612) 479-3555

This project developed an environmental education curriculum for people with disabilities. The model curriculum, entitled "Celebrate the Earth" includes information about integration techniques and guidelines for adapting environmental education activities. Formal and informal evaluations of the model were carried out by both professionals and people with disabilities.

Much of the second year of the project was spent teaching about the importance of environmental education for people with disabilities and how to use the model curriculum. Training was provided for 63 educators, 113 environmental professionals, and 111 rehabilitation professionals. To further disseminate the curriculum beyond these 300 individuals, articles and press releases about the curriculum will be submitted to 20 professional publications.

Subd. 06  Agriculture

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Biological Control of Pests
Subd. 06a    $650,000 TF

Dharma Sreenivasam
MN Dept. of Agriculture
90 West Plato Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55107

Phone:  (612) 296-1350

Continuing from the 1989-1991 biennium (M.L. 1989, Chp. 335, Sec. 29, Subd.8b), the long-term goal of this research program is to develop biological controls for several MN pests including leafy spurge, Canada thistle, European corn borer, corn rootworm, weevils, forest defoliators, filth flies, gypsy moths and grasshoppers. This biennium's research program consisted of eight separate projects carried out by 15 scientists from two colleges and five departments at the University of MN and four scientists from the MN Department of Agriculture.

In the area of weed control, exotic flea beetles were used to successfully control leafy spurge, and a bacterium was isolated and is being patented to be used against Canada thistle.

In the area of microbiological control, cultivation of pathogens which act against corn borers and grasshoppers was improved, and suppressive isolates tested against potato scab yielded up to 80% scab reduction over a four-year field test.

In the area of field and vegetable crop control, three parasitoids and one pathogen of the alfalfa weevil were determined to be widely distributed and to reduce weevil populations by 90% or more. The production and field testing of egg parasite species for corn borers has improved but further study is still needed to uncover the combined impact of egg, larval, and pupal parasites. Several treatments were found to be effective at significantly reducing larval infestations by the imported cabbageworm, diamondback moth, and cabbage looper.

Concerning the area of urban, livestock, and commercial greenhouse pest control, a gypsy moth parasite was reared and released at nine sites, 3.2 million parasites were produced for release against houseflies and stable flies, and predators were evaluated for their potential to combat aphids and thrips in commercial rose production.

To disseminate the results of these research projects, a symposium was held in October 1992 with over 140 scientists from the U.S., Canada, Israel, Korea, Mexico, and Europe. Other dissemination has included the publication of 37 articles in scientific journals and ten presentations at national and international conferences. This research program is continuing through the 1993-1995 biennium (M.L.93, Ch. 172, Sec. 14, Subd.3(a)).

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Review and Evaluation of Degradation and Bioremediation of Elevated Levels of Pesticides at Spill Sites
Subd. 06b    $300,000 MFRF

Greg Buzicky
MN Department of Agriculture
90 West Plato Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55107

Phone:  (612) 296-5639

This research project investigated the application of bioremediation technologies to pesticide-contaminated soils and water. The bioremediation literature was first reviewed, and then laboratory and field studies were conducted to explore how concentration levels affect the persistence of two pesticides, atrazine and alachlor, at spill sites. It was found that at the high concentrations characteristic of spill sites, degradation of alachlor is slow whereas the degradation of atrazine can be rapid depending upon soil type.

Innovative bioremediation technologies were then studied using plants and microbes in the laboratory. In experiments using cultivated microbes, high concentrations of atrazine were degraded rapidly into harmless end products.

These bacterial cultures were also added to heavily contaminated soils from a site in MN and significant biodegradation was observed. Although the use of bioremediation technologies on pesticide contaminated media is largely untested at the field scale, results from these laboratory experiments show it to be a promising method.

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Effective Nitrogen and Water Management for Water Quality Sensitive Regions of Minnesota
Subd. 06c    $300,000 MFRF

Dr. H.H. Cheng
Department of Soil Science, U of M
St. Paul, MN 55108

Phone:  (612) 625-9734

This research developed and demonstrated ways to reduce nitrogen contamination of groundwater through more effective utilization of nitrogen from manure, legume, and fertilizer sources. An inventory of soil, climate, and management practices of the Central Sands of Minnesota was prepared based on intensive interviews of MN farmers.

The project then evaluated tillage influences on nitrogen available to corn from manure and fertilizer sources as well as nitrate leeching losses. The research also included monitoring soil nitrogen distribution and developed a nitrogen budget for irrigated potatoes. Finally, the experimental models for nitrate leeching were tested and validated.

Early research indicates that over-application of nitrogen on manured fields appears to have the most potential impact on water quality. To minimize nitrogen loss through percolation, different methods were recommended depending upon the season. These recommendations include managing the source and timing of fertilizer application in the spring, managing the amount and timing of irrigation in the summer, and growing a cover crop to tie up the residual nitrogen within the root zone during the fall.

Based on model simulations, a procedure was developed to derive risk indices for nitrate leaching loss from soils as influenced by changes in nitrogen and irrigation management practices and climatic conditions. This procedure has the potential to be linked to the computerized database of the Soil Survey Information System, so that risk indices for other similar soils could be derived.

Demonstrations were also developed during this biennium to be used in educational efforts. Five on-farm demonstration sites were established to illustrate ways of minimizing nitrate contamination including the use of alternative sources of nitrogen, alternative scheduling of nitrogen applications, legume and manure nitrogen credits, improved tillage practices, over crops, and sap nitrate tests for potatoes.

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Conservation Reserve Easements
Subd. 06d    $600,000 TF

David Behm
MN Board of Water and Soil Resources
155 South Wabasha #104
St. Paul, MN 55107

Phone:  (612) 296-0880

The Conservation Reserve Easements project allowed the Board of Water and Soil Resources to accelerate its Reinvest in Minnesota Reserve wetland restoration and easement acquisition activities. This appropriation provided permanent protection to 280.6 acres of restored wetlands and 420.4 acres of adjacent enhanced uplands. This cumulative acreage reflects a net gain in critically important waterfowl production habitat.

Due to these accelerated wetland restoration activities, the Board is pursuing opportunities to leverage further easement acquisition and practice establishment funds within the Minnesota River watershed from the North American Wetland Conservation Act. LCMR funding for continued acquisition activities will continue through the 1993-1995 biennium (M.L. 1993, Chp. 172, Sec. 14, Subd. 3e).

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Native Grass and Wildflower Seed
Subd. 06e    $130,000 MFRF

Charles Dale
MN Department of Agriculture
90 West Plato Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55107

Phone:  (612) 296-6123

This project developed varietal, cultural, and market information necessary to encourage expanded commercial production of native Minnesota wildflower and grass seed. The project studied the genetic diversity of native species and found that local populations within a region could be intermixed without reducing or altering genetic diversity.

Using these and other findings, solutions to seed production problems were developed that can be used as models for production that are both genetically sound and economically feasible. One example includes subjecting seed to a dormancy-reducing treatment that makes seed more marketable for cultivation.

Germination percentages were also determined for seven species which can be included on seed labels to help increase buyer confidence. Results from this project have been disseminated in a database for the Minnesota Department of Agriculture's Marketing Division that lists all the native seed producers in the state, in a research report entitled "A Market Assessment of Minnesota's Native Wildflower and Grass Seed Industry," and in a fact sheet on native plants that will be distributed through the Minnesota Extension Service.

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Community Gardening Program
Subd. 06f    $110,000 MFRF

Dorothy Johnson
MN State Horticultural Society
1979 Folwell Ave. #161
St. Paul, MN 55108

Phone:  (612) 624-7752

In cooperation with the MN State Horticultural Society and the Self-Reliance Center, this project provided gardening information and technical assistance in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. Through the Minnesota Green program and the Sustainable Resources Center, this project focused on both small-community land stewardship and urban food gardening. Minnesota Green provided assistance to over 50 communities outside the Twin Cities metro area by linking people to resources and technical support which resulted in greening efforts at parks, schools, food-shelf sites, entryways, public housing developments, and commercial districts.

Within the Twin Cities area, the Sustainable Resources Center helped establish 20 new gardens. As a result, municipal support for community gardens has increased substantially. Both programs produced a newsletter disseminating information about the programs. All community gardening efforts started through the Sustainable Resources Center are expected to function autonomously and are encouraged to expand urban gardening throughout their areas.

Subd. 07  Forestry

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MN Old Growth Forests: Characterization & Identification
Subd. 07a    $150,000 MFRF

Kurt A. Rusterholz
Natural Heritage Program
500 Lafayette Road
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 297-7265

This project developed quantitative, structural definitions of Minnesota old-growth forest types and examined the importance of old growth as sensitive habitat. In northern Minnesota, 60 stands of old-growth and mature white pine, red pine, and northern hardwood were sampled and examined for their structural characteristics and species characteristics.

The findings from this study were used to augment the guidelines and criteria for evaluating candidate old-growth stands. DNR resource personnel and forest inventory contractors are in the process of sampling several hundred candidate stands using these updated criteria. This project is continuing in the 1993-1995 biennium through additional LCMR funding (M.L. 1993, Chp. 172, Sec. 14, Subd. 6c).

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Impacts of Intensified Forest Management and Atmospheric Change on Nutrient Cycling and Tree Species Suitability
Subd. 07b    $220,000 MFRF

Alan R. Ek
Forest Resources, U of MN
2004 Folwell Ave.
St. Paul, MN 55108

Phone:  (612) 624-3400

This research examined forest nutrient cycling processes and tree requirements in order to address management questions concerning species-site matching, choice of rotation lengths, and appropriate levels of tree and stand utilization. A positive correlation was found between aspen growth and the availability of calcium and nitrogen. It was also concluded that nutrient cycling in young aspens was high with a corresponding increase in available nutrients, and that increased soil moisture favored nutrient cycling.

This research project also explored the rate at which aspen stands store and accumulate nutrients added by atmospheric deposition and soil weathering and how nutrient cycling via litterfall relates to nutrient fluxes into and out of the system. Data collected during this study came from a wide range of aspen sites in Minnesota and are now accessible for modelling forest growth. The ecosystem simulation model LINKAGES was also refined to facilitate long-term analyses.

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State Forest Land Acquisition
Subd. 07c    $500,000 MFRF

John Hellquist
DNR Forestry
500 Lafayette Road
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 624-9298

This appropriation was used to acquire lands in high priority areas of the R.J. Dorer Memorial Hardwood State Forest to work toward the acquisition goal of 83,150 acres as identified in the 1979 Plan for Acquisition in the Lewiston Area Forest Resources Plan.

Three properties in Goodhue, Olmsted, and Winona counties were acquired totaling 584 acres. An interpretive trail is being built on the Goodhue county property and all the lands purchased are open to recreational use.

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Regeneration and Management of Minnesota's Oak Forests
Subd. 07d    $225,000 MFRF

Steven Laursen
MN Extension Service, U of MN
247 Coffey Hall
St. Paul, MN 55108

Phone:  (612) 624-9298

This research project examined the effect of site and stand conditions and forest management systems on oak regeneration. It was found that oak seedling and acorn survival rates were not affected by site preparation with herbicides or bulldozing, or by tree shelters. Tree shelters were found to reduce animal damage and increase the height and diameter growth of seedlings but not acorns.

Researchers also found that survival rates for acorns were significantly lower than survival rates for seedlings, but there was no significant difference in the survival, height, or diameter growth of premium and nursery-run planted oak seedlings.

A data base containing information from 91 recently harvested oak sites was compiled and summarized, and general inspection of the data suggested that oak constituted over 75 percent of removal on most sites but averaged only 12 percent of the regeneration. Analysis showed that oak regeneration may be affected by harvest technique and by the slope and aspect of sites; but it doesn't appear to be affected by residual stand amount or composition.

To disseminate information about this research and about oak management strategies in general, the research team conducted approximately 133 educational events in southeast MN and reached approximately 600 woodland owners, 2371 youth, 210 youth educators, and 1,670 other adults.

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Private Forest Management for Oak Regeneration
Subd. 07e    $200,000 MFRF

Steven Laursen
U of MN Extension Service
240 Coffey Hall
St. Paul, MN 55108

Phone:  (612) 624-7281

This project assessed privately owned oak forests in southern Minnesota for pre- and post-harvest regeneration needs and offered technical and educational assistance to private landowners to help increase oak regeneration.

A total of 1,446 landowners were assisted in some way, and a total of 3,852 acres of woodlands were planned for in detail. 130 acres of timber harvest were planned, over 700 acres of oak were regenerated, and 40 acres of oak were improved.

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Aspen Hybrids and New Tissue Culture Techniques
Subd. 07f    $70,000 MFRF

Carl A. Mohn
Forest Resources, U of M
St. Paul, MN 55108

Phone:  (612) 624-7281

This project continued research initiated by the U of MN Departments of Horticultural Science and Forest Resources by working to develop the biological efficiency of two new tissue culture (cloning) techniques, examining clonal fidelity of these two systems, and assessing the commercial production efficiency of the systems. A root culture system and a micro-cross section (MCS) system were refined and compared.

Both systems produced a satisfactory level of microshoot production and clonal fidelity. In terms of production costs and duration, the root culture system was comparable to the traditional system of shoot tip propagation. However, the micro-culture system would cost roughly 39% less than either of the other two systems because of reduced materials, overhead, and administrative cost.

Commercial use of these results will depend upon acceptance by the forestry industry of one of the tissue culture procedures as a method of clonal propagation.

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Aspen Decay Models for Mature Aspen Stands
Subd. 07g    $85,000 MFRF

Dennis Hummitzsch
Koochiching County Land Department
International Falls, MN 56649

Phone:  (218) 283-6295

This project developed a model based on easily observable aspen stand characteristics that will enable land managers to minimize aspen loss due to decay. The research indicates that the leading indicators of decay are generally age, size, and site index. Consequently, the researchers developed a model that contains one equation which provides a risk index and one that provides an estimate of the amount of decay likely.

The equations will be used in an ongoing project to develop a package which links a geographic information system (GIS) with forest growth and yield models so that other counties and organizations in northern Minnesota can use the models.

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Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Timber Harvesting
Subd. 07h    $400,000 TF

Michael Kilgore
Office of Strategic and Long Range Planning
300 Centennial Office Building
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 297-2607

This appropriation was used to develop a generic environmental impact statement (GEIS) on timber harvesting in Minnesota. The resulting GEIS identifies and quantifies long-term sustainable timber removal levels, and the environmental, economic, and social impacts that will likely occur over the next 50 years under three different levels of timber harvesting.

In response to the significant impacts identified, the GEIS recommends Minnesota establish several levels of forest programs to deal with issues at the site level, landscape level, and research level. The GEIS process itself provided insights regarding how other large-scale resource assessments might be conducted and how this project's methodology can be applied to other resource studies.

It is expected that the study's findings and recommendations will have a significant impact on the future policies and programs that influence how Minnesota's forest resources are used, managed, and protected.

The draft GEIS has been distributed to policymakers, resource managers, interest groups, and citizens throughout Minnesota, the United States, and Canada. The resulting technical and background papers continue to be used as technical reference guides.

Subd. 08  Fisheries

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Pilot Fish Pond Complex for Fisheries Development and Education
Subd. 08a    $250,000 MFRF

John P. Ringlet
Leech Lake Reservation
Box 100
Cass Lake, MN 56633

Phone:  (218) 335-8240

This appropriation contributed to the design and ongoing construction of a multi-species fish production complex on the Leech Lake Chippewa Reservation. To contain costs and minimize environmental impacts, an agreement was negotiated with DNR to renovate an abandoned DNR fish pond facility below the Lake Winnibigoshish Dam. Construction is progressing with over 50% completion to date.

Additional funds for this project were obtained from the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Administration for Native Americans, and some materials were donated by the Forest Service and Great Lakes Gas Transmission Ltd.

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Aquaculture Facility Purchase and Development and Transgenic Gamefish Growth Studies
Subd. 08b    $1,200,000 MFRF

Ira Adelman
U of MN, Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife
St. Paul, MN 55108

Phone:  (612) 624-3600

Perry Hackett
U of MN, Dept. of Genetics and Cell Biology
1445 Gortner Ave.
St. Paul, MN 55108

Phone:  (612) 624-6736

This appropriation was used to construct an aquaculture/ fisheries research and demonstration facility on the U of MN St. Paul campus and to continue research on the growth, performance, molecular structure, and breeding of transgenic fish. The aquaculture facility is scheduled to be completed December 1993.

The research facet of the project inserted genes for growth enhancement into transgenic fish and analyzed their level of expression, growth effects, and stable transmission to succeeding generations. Of 10,000 transgenic northern pike, walleye, rainbow trout, and Atlantic salmon that were produced between 1988-1990, 200 founders remain. These low numbers can be attributed to the continued stress, including fluctuation in temperature and chlorine levels, that occurred when fish were moved around the state to different facilities. From the founders that remain, researchers do have second generation northern pike, rainbow trout, and Atlantic salmon.

Because an evaluation is needed of the potential environmental impact of these fish and their exploitation by MN aquaculturists, this project is being continued into the 1993-1995 biennium (M.L. 1993, Chp. 172, Sec. 14, Subd. 12o). The 1991-1993 project results have been disseminated through several research papers published in peer-reviewed scientific journals.

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Urban Aquatic Education Program
Subd. 08c    $340,000 MFRF

Linda Erickson-Eastwood
MN DNR - Fisheries
500 Lafayette Rd.
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 297-4919

This project expanded urban fishing opportunities and awareness, especially among inner-city minority youth, single parent families, women, people with disabilities, and low-income families. Approximately 57,000 Minnesotans have experienced the MinnAqua Program through its series of 312 special events, 131 clinics, and 94 nibbles.

Networks were developed with about 102 different groups who contributed either technical expertise, donations, or equipment. Program volunteers have donated over 2,000 hours per year to help implement the program. MinnAqua continues to spread and has been recognized as a model program for others to follow.

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Catch & Release Program
Subd. 08d    $35,000 MFRF

Henry G. Drewes
MN DNR - Fisheries
500 Lafayette Road
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 297-3287

This program promoted statewide awareness of the benefits of catch and release as a method for enhancing fishing quality. Administered through the Cooperative Opportunities for Resource Enhancement(CORE) program, 12 groups participated and completed projects.

These efforts increased angler awareness of the benefits of catch and release, provided information on proper methods for handling and releasing fish to insure good survival, and promoted cooperation with sports clubs to expand the use of catch and release as a viable management tool. Materials produced from this project, including a video entitled "Fish for Tomorrow," have been distributed to thousands of anglers throughout Minnesota.

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Metropolitan Lakes Fishing Opportunities Study
Subd. 08e    $75,000 MFRF

Duane Shodeen
1200 Warner Road
St. Paul, MN 55106

Phone:  (612) 772-7950

This project developed a profile of metro angler needs and barriers to angling based on a telephone survey of 1000 anglers. The data is available on computer disk which will make its utilization for management needs easier. Presently, errors in the data base are being corrected before an assessment of metro lakes management for angling can be completed and evaluated.

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Lake Minnetonka Bass Tracking
Subd. 08f    $85,000 MFRF

Tim Goerman
Fisheries Research
Brainard, MN 56401

Phone:  (218) 828-2246

This research project explored the biological and behavioral impacts of fishing tournaments on largemouth bass. Researchers found that tournaments did affect bass biology and behavior depending mostly upon the season tournaments were held, the fish-holding techniques employed, and the quality of livewell water. Fish mortality associated with tournaments is most likely due to the cumulative effects of sublethal stressors of poor water quality and handling, as well as physical injuries related to angling.

From these results the researchers made five recommendations:

  1. Continue point incentives for live-release tournaments,
  2. Continue minimum-impact weigh-in procedures,
  3. Change or dilute livewell water frequently during tournaments,
  4. Rotate use of weigh-in sites on lakes for multiple tournaments within a season, and
  5. Avoid traditional tournaments during the spawning season.

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Stocking Survey
Subd. 08g    $35,000 MFRF

Roy Johannes
MN DNR Fisheries
Box 12, 500 Lafayette Road
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 296-2308

Because state stocking production may not always be able to meet demand, this project was organized to identify and survey organizations statewide to determine their willingness and ability to participate in a cost-sharing stocking program. Surveys were mailed to 1,800 organizations and 135 responded. 53% of respondents were willing to donate time and/or money to potential DNR fish-stocking projects, while some respondents were already working cooperatively with the DNR. The remainder of the organizations wanted more specific information before considering donating any time or money, or they were not interested in participating.

The final report of this project was presented to the president of the MN Sportfishing Congress.

Subd. 09  Wildlife

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Insecticide Impact on Wetland and Upland Wildlife
Subd. 09a    $650,000 TF

Alfred Berner
Farmland Wildlife Populations Research, DNR
Rt. 1, Box 181
Madelia, MN 56062

Phone:  (507) 642-8478

This project researched the magnitude of impacts on growth, behavior, and survival of young upland and wetland birds caused by insecticides used to control agricultural pests.

In the wetland research, although application of insecticide showed no significant effect on duckling mass 15 days after treatment, the mean survival for broods reared on treated sites was significantly lower than for broods reared on untreated sites, suggesting that subtle effects of insecticide application on food availability may result in decreased survival and recruitment of ducklings.

In all upland experiments, invertebrate abundance and biomass were reduced following application of insecticide, but there was no effect on daily mass change in pheasant chicks.

The results of this research project can be used to guide the application of insecticides as part of routine agricultural practices, and to more fully understand the potential direct and indirect effects of insecticide on non-target organisms.

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Biological Control of Ecologically Harmful Exotic Species: Eurasian Watermilfoil
Subd. 09b    $160,000 MFRF

Luke Skinner
DNR Box 25
500 Lafayette Road
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 297-3763

The long-term goal of this project is to utilize native insects and fungal pathogens to develop long-term biological control techniques for controlling Eurasian Watermilfoil. To this end, the current project focused on identifying naturally occurring control organisms and selecting those which inflict the most damage for additional research.

Three native insects - a weevil, a caterpillar, and a caddisfly - are known to feed on Eurasian watermilfoil. The weevil was shown to hold the most promise of the three insects for controlling Eurasian watermilfoil because it seems to strongly prefer the plant during multiple choice experiments.

In addition to insects that prey on watermilfoil, native fungi were also examined for their control potential. The three isolates that were found to display the greatest virulence will be mass cultured and then tested in field plots for effectiveness.

This insect and fungal research will continue through 1995 and results will be shared with peer-reviewed journals and other researchers as they become available. This project is continuing through the 1993-1995 biennium (M.L. 1993, Chp. 172, Sec. 14, Subd. 12l).

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Microbial/Genetic Strategies for Mosquito Control
Subd. 09c    $150,000 MFRF

Ann Fallon and T.J. Kurtti
Department of Entomology, U of MN
St. Paul, MN 55108

Phone:  Ann Fallon (612)625-3728 and TJ Kurtti (612)624-4740

This project researched microbial/genetic strategies for controlling mosquitoes by utilizing microbial agents, especially pathogenic microsporidia, that are environmentally safe and specific for mosquitoes.

Three strains of microsporidia were evaluated as control agents; one was not infective to mosquitoes, one was difficult to propagate in the laboratory and therefore requires additional research, and one (Nosema algerae) was found to be infectious in mosquitoes and able to be propagated in caterpillar larvae. The researchers also characterized physiological processes that limit microsporidian infection in mosquitoes.

Further research in this area has potential implications for therapeutic control of mosquito-born disease, including LaCrosse encephalitis. Researchers also documented the existence of defense reactions to microsporidia in mosquitoes, which must be factored into the current research efforts. Results from this research have been disseminated through posters at scientific meetings and in a pending manuscript.

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MN County Biological Survey
Subd. 09d    $1,000,000 TF

Carmen Converse
Natural Heritage Program, DNR
500 Lafayette Road
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 296-9782

Continuing from the 1989-1991 biennium (M.L.89, Ch. 335, Art. 1, Sec. 29, Subd. 3(t)), the MN County Biological Survey is a county-by-county inventory of rare animals, rare plants, and significant natural vegetation communities. All data are entered into the Natural Heritage Information System and are used for environmental review, forest and wildlife planning, urban and recreational development planning, nature preserve acquisition, additional research, and public education on the state's endangered species.

During this biennium, the survey was completed in eight counties (Goodhue, Kittson, Rice, Roseau, Morrison, Red Lake, Pennington, Marshall) and continues in five (Polk, Winona, Cass, Dakota, Houston), bringing the total to 20 counties since 1987. Three sites recommended by MCBS have become Scientific and Natural Areas. One of the most significant protection efforts has been the 6900 acre addition of aspen parkland to Beaches Lake Wildlife Management Area, which the MCBS identified as a natural ecosystem restricted to NW Minnesota and adjacent Canada. The MN Biological Survey is continuing through the 1993-1995 biennium (M.L. 1993, Chp. 172, Sec.14, Subd. 6a).

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Data Base for Plants of Minnesota
Subd. 09e    $130,000 TF

Anita F. Cholewa
Herbarium, Dept. of Plant Biology
U of M
St. Paul, MN 55108

Phone:  (612) 625-3702

This project computerized information about the 2000 species of plants that grow in Minnesota. The resulting database was created to supply easier access to biological data, where searches can be conducted by species' name, locality, preserve or state park name, nearby town, township and range, latitude and longitude, habitat, collector, and collection date.

The data base has also been linked to a mapping program so that current statewide distribution maps can be created. Network connection allows remote access by users. Two predicted users are the DNR personnel working on the County Biological Survey and the MN Department of Transportation personnel concerned with roadside plantings of native plants.

Notification of the data base will also be made available to other potential users including the public.

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Aquatic Invertebrate Assessment Archive
Subd. 09f    $130,000 TF

Judy Helgen
Water Quality Division, MN PCA
520 Lafayette
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 296-7240

This appropriation was used to continue work from the 1989-1991 biennium (M.L. 89, Ch. 335, Sec.29, Subd. 10(c)) on a database of aquatic invertebrates and to analyze unimpaired wetland sites for invertebrate and other biological communities in order to develop biological assessment methods and biological criteria of pollution.

35 wetlands in the Central Hardwood Forest ecoregion in 17 counties of Minnesota were analyzed for several invertebrate groups, amphibian densities, and 11 water and six sedimentary chemistry parameters. The reference sites show a broad representation of invertebrate groups and vegetation and have indications of high water quality.

This project has formed the basis for funding requests to U.S. E.P.A which cover a full analysis of the large data set for aerial photography of the sites, landscape analysis, descriptive data analysis, and work on developing appropriate protocols and metrics of biological condition for wetlands.

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CANCELED - Wetlands Forum
Subd. 09g    $40,000 TF (Required match not met)

John Stine
1200 Warner Road
St. Paul, MN 55106

Phone:  (612) 772-7910

The purpose of this project was to collect, analyze, and disseminate information on the wise use and conservation of wetlands in the metropolitan area.

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Easement Acquisition on Restored Wetlands
Subd. 09h    $400,000 TF

David H. Behm
MN Board of Water and Soil Resources
155 South Wabasha, #104
St. Paul, MN 55107

Phone:  (612) 297-8341

This pilot program acquired permanent easements on private lands containing federally restored wetlands or enhanced wetlands and adjacent lands. In cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Izaak Walton League, the BWSR encouraged landowners with restorations on Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contract lands or restorations associated with F&W Service wildlife development agreements to enroll the desired parcels under perpetual easements in the Reinvest in Minnesota (RIM) Reserve.

20 perpetual conservation easements were enrolled in the RIM Reserve Program, providing permanent protection to 279.1 acres of restored wetlands and 424.6 acres of adjacent uplands.

The enrolled acreage represents 34 restored wetland basins, mostly within the prairie pothole region of MN; and eight of the 20 easement areas include multiple wetland basins or complexes.

As a result of this program, the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS) approved a statewide policy allowing CRP contract holders to modify or cancel their CRP contracts without repayment or penalties as long as the lands are enrolled under perpetual conservation easements into the RIM Reserve Program.

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Swan and Heron Lake Area Projects
Subd. 09i    $1,000,000 MFRF

Larry R. Nelson
DNR/ Fish and Wildlife
Box 756
New Ulm, MN 56073

Phone:  (507) 359-6030

Continuing from the 1989-1991 biennium ( M.L. 1989, Chp. 335, Sec. 29, Subd. 3s), the Swan and Heron Lake projects have leveraged $5,169,430 in matching funds from a broad spectrum of partners including conservation organizations, private donors, and various state and federal entities to be used to acquire critical wetland habitat. To date, over 3,971 acres have been purchased, including 951 acres of protected or restored wetlands. All lands have been included in the Minnesota outdoor recreation system and are open for appropriate public use. Color brochures and short videos have been produced about the Swan and Heron Lake projects, and numerous tours and presentations have been given to local, national, and international interest groups.

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Wildlife Oriented Recreation Facilities - Sandstone Unit
Subd. 09j    $9,000 MFRF

John Lindell
US Fish & Wildlife Service
Rt.2, Box 67
McGregor, MN 55760

Phone:  (218) 768-2402

This appropriation was used to construct basic recreational facilities at the 2,000 acre Sandstone Unit of Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge. The completed facilities include a visitor parking area and an information kiosk that houses leaflets describing the Sandstone Unit to visitors and will also eventually include interpretive panels describing the biological significance of the Refuge Unit.

Project managers anticipate 2000 visitors to the Sandstone unit annually.

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Scientific and Natural Areas Acquisition and Betterment
Subd. 09k    $300,000 MFRF

Bob Djupstrom
MN DNR - Box 7
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 624-2357

This appropriation was used to protect Minnesota's natural diversity through public land acquisition and development of dedicated scientific and natural areas (SNA). Lands at three sites were protected for sand prairie, sand dunes, mesic prairie, and habitat for five-lined skink.

Other project activities included carrying out prescribed burning, reducing woody encroachments on prairies, eliminating exotic species, and working on restoration projects. Scientific and Natural Areas are used by the public for observing rare plants and animals, outdoor education, and scientific research.

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Black Bear Research in East Central MN
Subd. 09l    $100,000 MFRF

Elmer C. Birney
Bell Museum of Natural History
100 Ecology Building, U of MN
St. Paul, MN 55108

Phone:  (612) 624-6293

This program studied black-bear population size and structure, individual movements, and habitat-use patterns in order to better understand the problem of bear damage to crops in east-central MN.

From collected data, several conclusions about black bears and crop damage were drawn:

  1. Bear densities are relatively high in the study area.
  2. Given the large number of resident bears involved in crop damage and the dispersed nature of crops, techniques aimed at individual problem bears are not feasible.
  3. During years of widespread failure of the berry and mast crops, higher levels of crop damage are predicted.
  4. The physical characteristics of the landscape surrounding agricultural fields does not seem to correlate strongly with the probability of damage by bears. and
  5. Most landowners in the study area appear to expect and tolerate the levels of crop damage by black bears experienced during the study. Except in years of low natural food availability, additional mitigation will not be necessary.

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Partnership for Accelerated Wild Turkey Management
Subd. 09m    $50,000 MFRF

John R. Beard
701 E. Lake Street
Wayzata, MN 55391

Phone:  (612) 475-4127

This appropriation was used to accelerate and complete the MN DNR Wild Turkey Reintroduction Program. The LCMR appropriation generated a match of $50,000 from the National Wild Turkey Federation.

The project group trapped 931 wild turkeys in southeast Minnesota, and 882 of these were released into 43 new sites in Minnesota's identified turkey range. Also, 88 additional wild turkeys were obtained through wildlife exchanges with other states for release into unoccupied turkey habitat.

This project also expanded the wild turkey survey to include all current and potential range and developed an innovative GIS which will model and monitor our expanding turkey population.

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Restore Thomas Sadler Roberts Bird Sanctuary
Subd. 09n    $50,000 TF

Jeffrey T. Lee
Minneapolis Parks and Recreation Board
3800 Bryant Ave. S.
Minneapolis, MN 55409

Phone:  (612) 348-4448

In conjunction with neighborhood residents and the Minneapolis chapter of the Audubon Society and utilizing a local match of $50,000, the Thomas Sadler Roberts Bird Sanctuary project designed and constructed a trail system that has increased public access to the sanctuary wetlands with a minimum of impact on the flora and fauna.

In addition, various interpretive materials have been developed including topographic/habitat maps and a detailed guidebook, which will help orient visitors to the sanctuary's wildlife and help them identify these same plants and animals throughout the city and state.

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Effects of Change in the Forest Ecosystem on the Biodiversity of Minnesota's Northern Forest Birds
Subd. 09o    $300,000 TF

Lee Pfannmuller
Nongame Wildlife Program
DNR - 500 Lafayette Road
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 297-2276

In order to help facilitate the development of an integrated resource management policy that would provide a sustainable resource base and preserve biodiversity, this research program assessed historical forest bird population trends, developed a research and monitoring program to predict future trends, digitized regional forest cover and land use data, and began an analysis of the relationship between regional bird populations and land use patterns.

The resulting data files have wide applications to other resource management issues in the northern forest. To disseminate important results, this work group developed a slide show on biodiversity and forest songbirds, an information guide outline, and a management leaflet on forest fragmentation. This project has been featured in several newspaper, magazine, TV, and radio pieces and continues into the 1993-1995 biennium (M.L. 1993, Chp. 172, Sec. 14, Subd. 6b).

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Establish Northern Raptor Rehabilitation and Education Facility
Subd. 09p    $75,000 MFRF

Ron Osterbauer
The Raptor Center, U of MN
St. Paul, MN 55108

Phone:  (612) 624-4745

This appropriation was used to establish a raptor rehabilitation and release facility at the Audubon Center of the Northwoods. The facility includes educational and veterinary care areas, rehabilitation and release facilities, and a landscaped area.

A staff person was hired to coordinate educational programs and on-site visits. Volunteers have been recruited and trained, and birds are now being admitted to the facility. An educational curriculum and video have been completed for 4th-6th grade teachers to teach about the natural history of raptors and the environmental pressures they face. This curriculum should be distributed in January 1994.

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Effect of Avian Flu Virus on Growth and Production Parameters in Mallard Ducks
Subd. 09q    $16,000 MFRF

David Halvorson
Dept. of Veterinary Science, U of MN
St. Paul, MN 55108

Phone:  (612) 625-5292

This appropriation was used to research the pathogenicity of avian influenza virus on mallard ducks and its affect on rate of growth and reproduction. Results suggest that influenza viruses are capable of having negative effects on the immune system of ducks, but do not appear to cause significant lesions in other tissues. The viruses did not appear to affect rate of growth in ducklings.

Concerning the viruses' effect on reproductive health, there was a significant decrease in egg production following inoculation with the virus, but it returned to normal levels by the second week. No effect was seen on egg shape, weight, or fertility.

It was concluded that other influenza viruses probably exist in nature which may be even more pathogenic in waterfowl than the non-pathogenic isolate examined in this study. The results of this study were accepted into two journals for publication and shared at annual veterinary meetings in 1992 and 1993.

Subd. 10  Land

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Base Maps for the 1990's
Subd. 10a    $1,900,000 TF

Don Yaeger
Land Management Information Center
330 Centennial Building
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 297-2490

This appropriation provided the state match for a federal program to complete a major portion of the statewide air photo and base map coverage. Two sets of state-wide aerial photography were purchased.

A pilot digital orthophotography project was completed in Olmsted County, and a contract was then written for $1,520,000 to start the two-year orthophotography production process for the southeastern half of the state. Products are scheduled to be delivered in the second half of 1994. The final objective of this project was completed with a $200,000 contract to print revised USGS topographic quad maps for the state's seven largest urban areas (Twin Cities, Duluth, Rochester, St. Cloud, Winona, Mankato, and Moorhead). Final printed maps will be delivered in late 1993. The sets of photography generated from this project have been used by both the general public and public agencies at all levels. Data from the Olmsted County pilot has been distributed to GIS researchers at the federal, state, and local levels. Published quad maps of the urban areas are for sale to the public and will be distributed free to major state agencies and all major public map libraries. This project is continuing through the 1993-1995 biennium (M.L. 1993, Chp. 172, Sec. 14, Subd. 8a).

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Accelerated Soil Survey
Subd. 10b    $1,270,000 MFRF

James Anderson
Dept. of Soil Science, U of MN
St. Paul, MN 55108

Phone:  (612) 625-8209

This project completed field soil surveys in eight counties (Aitken, Becker, Clearwater, Lac Qui Parle, Mahnomen, Marshall, McLeod, and Meeker) and continued surveys in six counties (Hubbard, Ottertail, Polk, Renville, Roseau, and St. Louis). The data gathered about particle size, organic matter content, pH, water retention values, and bulk density can be used to determine the leeching potential of agrichemicals and the soil-specific management needs for crop production.

Since the start of the acclerated soil survey, 36 soil survey reports have been published and 14 are pending publication. These reports are useful for interpretation of a variety of land uses including agricultural, silvacultural, residential, and recreational. A digitized information system, Soil Survey Information System (SSIS) was developed which allows the spatial display of soils and selected properties for any given section of land. This information can then be incorporated into the multi-layer analysis of landscapes and watersheds.

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Statewide National Wetlands Inventory, Protected Water Inventory, and Watershed Map Digitization
Subd. 10c    $750,000 TF

John Stine
DNR Division of Waters
500 Lafayette Road
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 296-0440

This project completed the digitization of the National Wetland Inventory, the protected waters inventory, and the watershed boundaries. All three data sets make up the Wetlands GIS. Because there are many potential users of this information, a significant effort was made to develop GIS applications which are easy to use, affordable, and accessible.

The GIS layers will be used in the management of wetlands and especially in the implementation of the Wetlands Conservation Act of 1991. The Land Management Information Center (LMIC) has filled over 30 National Wetlands Inventory data requests for use by local communities, private consultants, and members of the public. As the Wetlands Conservation Act of 1991 continues to be implemented, demand for wetlands GIS data will most likely increase.

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Statewide Land Use Update of MN
Subd. 10d    $338,000 MFRF

Karla Parkinson
International Coalition for Land and Water
PO Box 127
Moorhead, MN 56560

Phone:  (218) 233-0292

This appropriation was used to update the statewide land use maps of all land and water resources outside the Twin City metropolitan area. The project interpreted a total of 1017 full or partial quadrangle maps out of a total of 1733 maps statewide. In addition, 166 quadrangle map equivalents have been similarly typed from other sources. This leaves 550 maps from the transition and forested zones of the state to complete. A detailed manual describing project techniques was also developed to facilitate the use and update of data. The project data resides at Land Management Information Center (LMIC) in a compatible form with other state data. The data will be supplied to other users through the Board of Water and Soil Resources Water Interface program.

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Local Geographic Information System Project
Subd. 10e    $143,000 MFRF

Karla Parkinson
International Coalition for Land and Water
PO Box 127
Moorhead, MN 56560

Phone:  (218) 233-0292

This appropriation was used to expand the applicability and use of geographic information systems (GIS) by developing programs and providing training at the local level. A GIS Users Group of resource managers in the Red River Basin was formed to monitor and facilitate the project, and a cooperative effort to tie the local GIS project with the Red River Watershed Management Board GIS management needs was undertaken.

A four-part Geographic Information System Users Foundation program effort was developed to define problems collaboratively, to provide the information needed to address these problems, to provide computer and GIS training, and to develop a help line to help managers with future problems. The program is designed to relate surface water data, ground water data, and land-use relationships.

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GIS Control Point Inventory
Subd. 10f    $175,000 MFRF

Don Yaeger
Land Management Information Center
330 Centennial Building
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 296-1209

This appropriation was used to produce digital files of the Public Land Survey (PLS) as represented on the most commonly used maps in the state and to establish a central PLS information file and a plan for long-range maintenance and retrieval of the information. A review of and update of PLS data for input to all future Inventory data sets was completed. And a digital section corner file from USGS quad maps was completed for statewide regional and statewide mapping.

While searching for a better system to track and organize precise PLS data as collected by field surveyors, it was decided that an existing DNR pilot project in Houston County could meet these needs with some modification and enhancement. Therefore, a contract was written between Land Management Information Center and DNR Engineering to refine and test the pilot inventory in five additional counties. After the pilot, a system for state-wide use was completed and is now available.

To disseminate the project results, both of the PLS digital data bases are available for clients of Land Management Information Center and are sold at nominal costs to other users. The system developed by DNR Engineering is being given free to every county, the MN Department of Transportation, two national forests, and any other public agency in the state who conducts land surveys.

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Land Use and Design Strategies to Enhance Environmental Quality
Subd. 10g    $100,000 MFRF

Harrison Fraker
College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, U of MN
Minneapolis, MN 55455

Phone:  (612) 626-1000

This appropriation was used to develop land use and urban guidelines for typical station stops on light rail transit (LRT) and busway systems that would create pedestrian oriented neighborhoods with improved environmental quality. In conjunction with the Metropolitan Council, five case study sites were chosen, and urban design prototypes were developed with the local communities.

From this process, several core principles emerged encompassing the notion that station stops should integrate a mixed-use commercial core, a better density and diversity of housing, and a public open space system of streets, sidewalks, parks, and squares that encourages pedestrian and bike use.

This work has influenced both the new Metropolitan Development and Investment Framework (MDIF) and the Regional Transit Facilities Plan. One city, Robbinsdale has also developed its own specific Downtown Redevelopment Plan using the guidelines from this research project.

A sixth case study in the Phalen neighborhood of St. Paul led to the development of a design framework in cooperation with the Phalen Small Area Plan Task Force that includes recreating a wetlands park as the neighborhood's signature and reintroducing distinct neighborhood streets as a way to rehabilitate existing deteriorating housing blocks and developing new diverse housing types.

The results of this total research effort have been disseminated in presentations to local community and planning groups, professional meetings, and committees of the state legislature.

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Model Residential Land Use Guidelines
Subd. 10h    $150,000 MFRF

Michael Robinson
Dept. of Landscape Architecture, U of MN
St. Paul, MN 55108

Phone:  (612) 625-6860

This research project surveyed the typical residential subdivision design regulations for Minnesota and examined their cumulative environmental, social, and economic effects in order to explore alternative designs that may be more beneficial and environmentally sound.

After examining subdivision design regulations, Planned Unit Development regulations, overlay zoning restrictions, and engineering standards in 17 developing communities, it was concluded that the regulations were nearly identical for all 17, regardless of environmental context or community needs. The regulations were strictly utilitarian in nature and fostered decisions based on functional "sizing" instead of decisions based on creating, protecting, and conserving the environmental, social, and cultural resources of a particular community.

From a historical search of planned communities in the United States from 1850 to 1930, several components of successful development were identified and used to create a new set of design principles that call for shifting development decisions from ones based on functional "sizing" to ones based on environmental and social connectedness, security, and sustainability.

The results of this project have been presented at several professional conferences and in meetings with city planners, engineers, fire chiefs, watershed managers, landscape architects, and area development firms.

Subd. 11  Minerals

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Subsurface Greenstone Belts in Southwestern MN
Subd. 11a    $120,000 MFRF

David L. Southwick
MN Geological Survey
St. Paul, MN 55114-1047

Phone:  (612) 627-4780

This research project explored the geological attributes of rocks that cause greenstone-like aeromagnetic anomalies in southwestern Minnesota because greenstone sequences are known to be potential habitat for deposits of gold, copper, lead, zinc and other metals. Through geophysical analysis and test drilling, researchers confirmed the presence of greenstone-belt rock assemblages in SW Minnesota. This confirmation provides a rationale for eventual mineral exploration in the area.

In addition to the discovery of mineral favorability, this research also uncovered from its test holes the presence of deep, well-protected sand and gravel aquifers within the glacial section. Although pumping tests and water quality analyses are required to assess them as sustained sources of water, these water-bearing deep sands and gravels may offer a local alternative to the use of environmentally vulnerable near-surface aquifers. The full technical results of this project were published by the MN Geological Survey as Information Circular 39 in late summer 1993.

Subd. 12  Waste

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Remediation of Soils Contaminated with Semi-Volatiles by Composting with Leaves
Subd. 12a    $110,000 MFRF

Larry Heinz
Minneapolis Community Development Agency
331 Second Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55401

Phone:  (612) 342-1381

This appropriation was used to assess the feasibility of remediating soils contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and other semi-volatile compounds by composting with yard waste. Soil contaminated with low levels of PAHs mixed with yard wastes in small static piles experienced approximately a 100% reduction in the total concentration of PAH compounds within approximately 21 weeks under the conditions of the study. About 90% of this decrease occurred during the first nine weeks of the study period.

However, this PAH reduction appeared to be caused by volatilization not biodegradation because the compost piles did not exhibit the optimal temperature, moisture, or nutrients necessary for microbial degredation to occur. A literature review suggested that the PAHs might have biodegraded if optimal compost conditions had been maintained throughout the study.

Findings from this research were presented at two professional seminars and are intended to be published in a journal covering bioremediation topics.

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Land Spreading of Yard Waste
Subd. 12b    $100,000 MFRF

Thomas Halbach
Soil Sciences Department, U of MN
439 Borlaug Hall
St. Paul, MN 55108

Phone:  (612) 625-3135

This appropriation was used to determine the maximum and optimum rates that yard wastes can be applied to Minnesota soils without reducing crop yields or endangering the environment. The research evaluated different application rates of yard waste and identified the amounts of nitrogen required to accelerate the decay process.

It was found that yard waste application rate had no effect on overall plant population. Application of nitrogen two weeks after emergence tended to minimize the negative effect of yard waste application on initial corn growth, but fall application did not significantly affect final yields. On the basis of a single year's crop of corn at Becker, MN it appears that direct soil incorporation of fall tree leaves can produce a similar yield following current U of MN soil test recommendations as long as application rates are held to 40 dry tons or less to the acre. Other crops and other soils may exhibit different results. This study was published in the Field Research in Soil Science 1993 Miscellaneous Publication 79-1993, MN Agricultural Experiment Station.

Subd. 13  Oil Overcharge

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Traffic Signal Timing and Optimization Program
Subd. 13a    $1,175,000 OOC

Marvin Sohlo
MN Dept. of Transportation
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 297-3441

This program addressed the problem of out-of-date traffic signal timing by providing training to traffic engineering personnel in the state-of-the-art computerized signal timing techniques and also by implementing a grant program which provided funding for the retiming and optimization of many signal systems throughout the state.

59 county, city, and state traffic engineering staff were trained, and each agency was provided with the software necessary for monitoring their signal system's efficiency in the future. Manuals of MN Department of Transportation standards, policies, and guidelines were also distributed to promote standardization of signal design statewide.

$1,051,011 was used to re-time 637 signals in 48 re-timing projects. As an evaluation measure, 262 re-timed signals were calculated to provide a reduction of 3,742,000 gallons of fuel, 168,372,000 vehicle stops, and 2,836,000 vehicle delays.

Results of the total program will be reported to all participating agencies and at the annual meeting of MN Urban Traffic Engineers Council (MUTEC).

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Waste Crumb Rubber in Roadways
Subd. 13b    $100,000 OOC

Roger Olsen
MN Dept. of Transportation
1400 Gervais Avenue
Maplewood, MN 55109

Phone:  (612) 779-5517

This appropriation was used to explore the use of pretreated ground waste tire rubber in hot mix asphalt concrete paving mixtures. This possibility of using crumb rubber without having to first blend and react it with the asphalt cement can save contractors expensive plant modifications and can provide a market for Minnesota-produced waste crumb rubber. Based on the characteristics desired for the final asphalt-rubber mixure, two crumb rubber pretreatments were selected for laboratory and field evaluations.

Laboratory results indicated that the first pretreatment, tall-oil pitch, reduced the interaction between the asphalt and crumb rubber so that the crumb rubber could be considered a separate phase in the mixture rather than an asphalt cement modifier. There was some indication that the ability of the mixture to resist thermal cracking was enhanced with the use of tall oil pretreated crumb rubber. However, tall oil pretreated rubber appeared to increase the moisture sensitivity of the mixture which led to premature failure of the test sections in Hennepin County. The second crumb rubber pretreatment, Hydrolene 90, was selected to help the crumb rubber particles partially modify the asphalt cement rather than just act as an inert elastic inclusion. Initial laboratory results indicated that this pretreated crumb rubber would produce a modified mixture with acceptable temperature and moisture sensitivity properties while showing a potential for improved resistance to thermal cracking at cold temperatures and rutting at warm temperatures. In fall 1993, this pretreated mixture was placed in test sections in Babbitt, MN for field testing.

The results of this research have been presented at professional meetings and will be published in the near future.

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Synthesis of Biodegradable Plastics in Microbial and Crop Plant Systems
Subd. 13c    $150,000 OOC

Freidrich Srienc
Dept. of Chemical Engineering, U of MN
St. Paul, MN 55108

Phone:  (612) 624-9776

This appropriation was used to genetically engineer yeast and crop plants to produce low-cost polyhydroxybuteric (PHB)acid, a biodegradable plastic with the potential to substitute for petroleum-based products.

A set of yeast plasmids was constructed containing the bacterial gene cluster responsible for PHB synthesis and introduced into both the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Black Mexican Sweet Corn (BMS). Through various analytical methods,the yeast and sweet corn were examined for the expression of PHB synthesis enzymes. The transformed yeast cells proved to be able to synthesize high levels of a key enzyme for PHB synthesis, and seven out of 50 transformed corn cell lines were able to synthesize small but significant amounts of PHB.

Outside funds are being sought to continue this research and eventually it may contribute to the development of yeast and plant systems that will produce inexpensive PHB using resources available in MN.

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Agricultural Energy Savings Information
Subd. 13d    $150,000 OOC

Patricia Hung
Agricultural Utilization Research Institute (AURI)
23 Emoire Drive
St. Paul, MN 55103

Phone:  (612) 223-8205

This appropriation was used to disseminate the results of state-funded research about energy-reducing technologies and sustainable development in order to accelerate the adoption of low-input agricultural practices. A comprehensive database was created which includes addresses, Agricultural Energy Savings project titles, contacts, summaries, and project results. The creation of a resource manual has been delayed due to numerous project extensions, but eventually, a comprehensive communications package will be produced that will contain stand-alone sections tailored to particular audiences' needs.

During this biennium, two series of conferences (spring 1992 and 1993) were held to showcase energy saving methods in agriculture. The Agricultural Utilization Resources Institute (AURI) and the MN Department of Agriculture worked together to produce a 32-page insert for Farmer Magazine which highlighted agency-sponsored projects; 66,000 copies were distributed.

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Residential Urban Environmental Resource Audit
Subd. 13e    $150,000 OOC

Anne Hunt
St. Paul Neighborhood Energy Consortium
2429 University Ave.
St. Paul, MN 55114

Phone:  (612) 644-5436

This project conducted whole-house resource audits called Green House Evaluations and held workshops to educate residents about environmentally-friendly household practices.

489 people attended the workshops focused on waste reduction, yard care, household hazardous waste, transportation, and water conservation, and resource conservation audits were performed on 315 homes in a St. Paul neighborhood. 80% of the households made changes in their homes due to the evaluations.

Materials developed for this program include a video, slide presentation, several booklets, and an assembled information packet; all will be shared with the libraries of the MN Pollution Control Agency and the MN Office of Waste Management Clearinghouse.

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Means for Producing Lignin-Based Plastic
Subd. 13f    $100,000 OOC

Simo Sarkanen
Dept. of Forest Products, U of MN
St. Paul, MN 55108

Phone:  (612) 624-6227

This research developed new kinds of biodegradable plastics using surplus industrial byproduct lignins derived from renewable wood resources from Minnesota's paper industry. Parent kraft lignins were isolated by acidifying pulp mill "black liquors" and then purified using ultrafiltration, which can be employed on the industrial scale. For maximum strength, the experimental lignins (85%) were blended with a commercially available polymer emulsion (15%). These experimental biodegradable plastics are as strong as the plastics that contain only 30 - 40% lignin.

The potential for patenting these plastics and transferring them to industry is now being explored.

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Cellulose Rayons for Packaging
Subd. 13g    $150,000 OOC

Fu-Hsian Chang
Center for Environmental Studies
Bemidji State University
Bemidji, MN 56601-2699

Phone:  (218) 755-4104

This appropriation was used to develop biodegradable and recyclable cellulose-based polymers from Minnesota resources that would be attractive to large manufacturers as viable alternatives to petrochemical-based plastics. Using aspen hardwood sawdust, ground hybrid poplar, and waste paper towel, cellulose-based plastics were synthesized using the processes of esterification, etherification, and xanthation.

The resulting plastics were assessed based upon water absorption capacity, water vapor transmission rate, water retention capacity, permeability to gases, clarity, heat stability, tensile strength, tearing strength, and elongation. The tearing strength and elongation of the experimental plastics were similar to those of commercial cellophane. The plastic derived from poplar wood had the highest water vapor transmission rate and water absorption capacity. There was little difference between the biodegradability rates of films made from sawdust, poplar wood, or waste paper towels.

To further the research and development of cellulose-based plastics, the researchers recommended the following priorities: utilizing other waste sources rich in cellulose; choosing pretreatment pathways and conditions that will increase reactivity and yields; improving synthesis techniques; studying different proportions in each formula that are suitable for various uses of packaging products; studying the forming, dyeing, and packing of final products; and conducting a detailed cost/benefit analysis in order to reduce the cost of goods and maximize yield efficiency.

The results of this research were presented at the 1993 American Chemical Society Annual Meeting and will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication.

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Tree and Shrub Planting for Energy
Subd. 13h    $1,250,000 OOC

Jonathan Stiegler
Division of Forestry, MN DNR
500 Lafayette Road
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 297-3507

This project evaluated the potential for energy conservation through tree and shrub planting, developed research-based guidelines for efficient tree and shrub configurations, and implemented a cost-share, community-based planting program.

A computer model was developed to simulate the shading impacts of different combinations of evergreen and deciduous trees on various building types, and field observations suggested that green ash and Ohio buckeye are most solar friendly, followed closely by black walnut and Kentucky coffeetree. The DOE2.1D computer program was used to simulate energy savings, and the greatest energy savings benefit from trees was found when trees are used collectively to shield homes from wind.

Specific guidelines to maximize benefits from planting suggested:

  1. Shade west and east windows,
  2. Avoid trees south of windows,
  3. Create windbreaks, and
  4. Increase tree canopy cover.

Using the recommendations developed from the research described above, 125 cost-share tree and shrub planting projects were implemented statewide. Projects included community-wide home planting, community shelterbelt planting, community reforestation, subdivision planting, school demonstrations, commercial and public building plantings, and parking and paved area plantings.

Project results and guidelines have been disseminated in two publications: "Energy Savings Landscapes: The Minnesota Homeowner's Guide" and "Energy Conservation Through Community Forestry." Both publications are available from the information centers at the Department of Natural Resources and the Department of Public Service.

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Oil Overcharge Program Administration
Subd. 13i    $200,000

Karen Carpenter
Dept. of Administration
50 Sherburne Ave.
St. Paul, MN 55155

Phone:  (612) 296-5857

This appropriation was to the commissioner of administration for processing and oversight of grants and allocations in the Oil Overcharge program.

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Evaluating Performance-Based Standards for Energy-Efficient New Homes
Subd. 13j    $75,000 OOC

Patrick Huelman
MN Building Research, U of MN
St. Paul, MN 55108

Phone:  (612) 624-8219

This appropriation was used to evaluate the impact of performance-based standards on the building industry and to develop a pilot program to train builders about key energy performance issues.

A homeowner survey and field monitoring program were performed on a sample of houses built in 1990 in order to gather data about house construction and energy consumption. Several prototype houses were developed based on a builder survey and were used in building energy computer modelling programs to evaluate insulation and ventilation impacts.

A comprehensive energy monitoring effort was completed on 7 houses that included a detailed analysis of house dimensions, thermal properties, airtight characteristics, ventilation capacity, delivered air flow, house depressurization, and mechanical system performance.

Using the results from these monitoring efforts, a series of training components were implemented including several pilot builder workshops and a regular feature article in the "Minnesota Builder" magazine. This project was a partnership of the home building industry, utility industry, state government and university researchers.